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I have a large vector .eps file of 8 logo samples. At 100% zoom, it is crisp and gorgeous, about 4 inches wide and 1.5 inches high on my laptop screen.

I tried object > rasterize with CMYK / 300dpi / type anti-aliasing, but lost quality and it was pasted into a new art-board at a much smaller size.

I want to save it as PNG and EPS (yes 2 files) but in a larger size, 500% zoomed for example in the original EPS file when exporting to new file, without losing any quality, especially when I downsize it and the fonts should not lose quality at all.

I'm new to Illustrator and it is different from Photoshop function wise. How do I export a PNG version at that size and quality?

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Don't use 'object > rasterize' - it is for when a particular vector element in your Illustrator document must be raster instead, not for general purpose rasterised output. –  e100 Dec 11 '12 at 12:43
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They'll never really be the same quality. The EPS will scale to the resolution of any device that can render it. The PNG's resolution is fixed to whatever you output.

The question is: How will the PNG be used? On screen I hope. Identify the highest resolution device to be targeted and export to that pixel size. If you want ideal rendering on several devices, export several versions

In Illustrator:
1. open your EPS
2. scale to the pixel size you need
3. export via "Save for Web"
4. select PNG-24 for maximum quality

You can scale it up further in the SFW dialog by adjusting the "Image size" (don't forget to hit "Apply") without any quality loss. Whatever settings you provide in SFW will be rendered from the vector original.

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It will be my company logo, so web (screen) but desktop not mobile. It has typing in the slogan too, which I don't want to lose quality. –  ServerSideX Dec 10 '12 at 23:29
    
I exported in a larger quality, but still loses quality if I downsize to 25% (about 200px x 70px), whether png or the original EPS. I downsized in the SFW area, png-24 and it loss quality, especially fonts in slogan. Otherwise it looks vector fine before downsizing. –  ServerSideX Dec 10 '12 at 23:47
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So you just export the logo to the pixel size that your web design accommodates. It's not going to be as crisp as that beautiful, zoomed in vector file, but it will be fine if it's been designed to handle the transition to web. You may want to consider a web font for your slogan/tag-line so you can keep the size of your logo file down. –  plainclothes Dec 10 '12 at 23:49
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@ServerSideX: "I exported in a larger quality, but still loses quality if I downsize to 25%" you should be exporting to EXACTLY the size you need. Do not resize it after export. This will ensure the best possible quality at that pixel size. –  horatio Dec 11 '12 at 17:32
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@ServerSideX I second horatio's comment. Read point number 2 in my answer: scale to the pixel size you need. That is to the pixel accuracy. No scaling in the browser. –  plainclothes Dec 11 '12 at 17:40
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