For example, for a tech company, should one be able to look at a logo and immediately see 'tech company', or whatever niche that company may provide\service? Also, is the color scheme important as well? There may not be a way to say 'high tech' by the color scheme but should that be taken into consideration? Should the entire name of the company be included into the logo, or does initials with an image suffice?
To be practical, when I see the linux penguin now, after having worked with linux, I think of linux and open source in general, but if I've worked with linux I wouldn't know that from the freaky guy in Apple's July 1976 ad.
It's no secret that logos could tie directly into branding, but do they have to? Of course Apple's logo does, but Microsoft's doesn't (how many people really look at it and see a window?), Android's is somewhere inbetween when you look at the name separate from the robot,
Of course all startups won't grow to be as big as those but I think those are good case studies to consider.
Another is a description I pulled describing the MGM Grand Logo:
This elegant, poised lion on the prowl symbolizes MGM Grand, the “City of Entertainment”, while the name written underneath in bold and all-caps indicates the dominance of the company. Their first logo was borrowed from a 1968 stylized version of MGM’s Studios logo of a lion head, which then gradually evolved into this muscular full-body lion.
note: I originally asked this question on OnStartups, but after the inactivity and seeing this site, I feel it's probably better for this site.