Although this is exactly what I would tell someone NOT to do in any other program, within Photoshop, it appears that many fonts' space character is exactly the same width across multiple lines.
As such, you can put in your bullet, add two spaces and your list text. Repeat for each line (using the same number of spaces after the bullet). In my testing (with mostly common, sans-serif fonts), the spaces are almost always – to-the-pixel – the same width.
Makes things easy. In ANY other program, this would be a massive no-no, as in most text editors/word processors the width of a space is determined by the rest of the content in that line, thus it's not the same across every line.