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The opacity and fill settings on a layer in Photoshop seem to do the same thing. What is the difference?

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When we set the Opacity value for a selected layer, the change applies to the entire layer. This means that any layer styles and blending mode for that layer are also affected.

When we set the Fill value,only painted pixels and vector items are affected,layer styles and blending mode remain same. i tried to show you the main difference between both, Check this SS.

For example, enter image description here

you can specify a Fill value and blending mode for a layer and only the fill pixels inside the shape are affected-not the layer styles applied to the layer. If you use the Opacity option to adjust transparency both the shape and effects are affected.i used inner shadow and stroke as layer style,i chose opacity 5% to show you coz in 0% there is nothing to display. hope this may clear you confusion.

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I think your answer is wrong. When I set the Blend Mode to Vivid Light, I set Opacity=100, Fill=50, it looks totally different than Opacity=50, Fill=100 (without any layer styles). –  Ivan Kuckir Apr 22 at 21:51
    
So I am searching the whole internet for an answer, which does not speak about layer styles. It seems like nobody knows the answer :( –  Ivan Kuckir Apr 22 at 22:38
    
which PS version you are using? –  Jack May 23 at 4:42
    
I tried it in Photoshop CS6. Here is an example: imgur.com/F5em93R. The difference is even more evident in some cases. It happens with several other blend modes. –  Ivan Kuckir May 23 at 10:25
    
have you tried without blend mode? –  Jack May 25 at 8:32

The Fill slider affects only the layers content.

The Opacity slider affects the entire layer, including any effects, such as drop shadow, inner glow, etc.

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