I can really empathize with your position, as I was in a similar situation for a very long time.
So far as speeding up your workflow, I find templates and a large collection of stock resources to be incredibly helpful. Where I was working, we had basic templates from the printers for certain items, but other times I had to create my own templates from scratch (lots of measuring, printing & assembling mockups, remeasuring, etc.). Don't ever throw away a template just because you're told this is a one-time job. And sometimes you can even create a company template that you just need to drag-n-drop text/images into for future projects. Not all projects need to be unique, and using a uniform template can be more professional for certain items.
Having a large collection of stock photos, textures, brushes, fonts, etc. is also incredibly helpful, as it saves you from having to acquire these resources (or make them) for each project. As a designer, you may dislike the idea of using someone else's work, but you have to decide whether artistic integrity (or personal ego) is more important than timely/efficient completion of a project. Buying stock art can many times be cheaper than spending 20-30 hours creating it yourself (and it can even produce better results). Otherwise, you should spend your free time creating these stock resources on your own.
Also, organize your resources. If your graphic resources are scattered across different drives/computers/CDs/DVDs, some are in Mac format while others are in PC, some are in obsolete proprietary formats, some only exist in analog form, some only the printer or outside designer has the source files to, etc. then it will really slow down your workflow.
Lastly, sometimes you're just not the right person for the job. Especially at small companies, it's often quantity over quality rather than the other way around. It's more about saving money and spending just enough to get the job done, not creating groundbreaking masterpieces of design. If this doesn't suit you, look for a new job. It's not fair to you or your employer for you to continue working there. They're forcing you to do work you're overqualified for, and you're forcing them to spend an unnecessary amount of money on each project.