Is it possible to print only the outline preview (View > Preview) of an artboard? Taking a screenshot and printing is not an option for me.
Unfortunately no. I've submitted a few feature requests to have the ability to actually use the Outline Mode in various ways - save it for web, print it. But currently Illustrator offers no abilities to actually export, print, or save the Outline Mode.
A screenshot is your only way.
What I've done in the past is save a copy of the file, Select all. Then apply a .75pt black stroke and no fill to everything. This comes close to mimicking the Outline Mode. But you may need to alter masks afterwards to remove the strokes. And some Effects may need to be removed.