Sounds like you need to uncheck "Anti-Alias" in the dialog, but on a quick test here I don't see a problem with effects if Anti-Aliasing for the text is set to "None" in the control bar. I don't see any AA being applied by an effect if AA is also turned off for the effect and it remains inside the letter shapes, but keep in mind that most of these effect apply transparency, which has an anti-aliasing effect by itself.
It's hard to remove all traces of smoothing, but on, say, an Outer Bevel with Contour applied, be sure that your highlight and shadow are set to 100% Opacity and Normal blend mode and that you have Anti-Alias unchecked in the Contour dialog.
Then right-click on the effect in the Layers panel and choose "Create Layer" from the context menu. This will give you the bevel highlights on one layer and the bevel shadows on another. You can then use a Levels or Posterize adjustment layer clipped to each one to remove any remaining intermediate shading pixels at the edges or within the effect.