The short-but-inadequate answer is "No, Photoshop doesn't store that information." The real answer takes a little longer to explain, but is important for an understanding of how to use the program most effectively.
To work with Photoshop efficiently you must develop the habit of using non-destructive editing techniques for everything you do. "Non-destructive" means that you don't take actions that change original pixels or that you can't change later, and Photoshop provides plenty of tools to make this possible.
In your case, you have applied a color balance correction. If instead of using
Image > Adjustments > Color Balance you apply a Color Balance adjustment layer (using the adjustment layer icon at the bottom of the Layers Panel), your settings are stored in the adjustment layer itself and are forever editable. You have not changed the original pixels at all. This applies to any image adjustment. Even Highlight/Shadow, which is not available directly as an adjustment layer, can be applied after you convert a layer to a Smart Object, and will thereafter be editable as a Smart Filter.
Rules like "Never apply corrections directly to a layer," "Don't erase -- mask instead" and "Make it a Smart Object before you apply a filter" will allow your Photoshop composites to "remember" the adjustments you applied and they will be editable no matter how many times you save the file or how long ago you saved it.
Adjustment layers come with an additional bonus: you can copy them from one document to another, so you can (for example) apply exactly the same Color Balance settings to multiple images just by pasting the same adjustment layer onto each image.
For a thoroughly readable and practical introduction to Photoshop, I recommend Scott Kelby's "Photoshop CS4 for Digital Photographers" and Deke McLelland's "Photoshop CS4 One-on-One." Both will groove in the techniques you need for a non-destructive workflow, get you up to speed on all the most essential features of Photoshop, and keep you entertained at the same time.