If you need a particular coordinate at the absolute center of your screen, you're out of luck without using scripting (most display resolutions have even numbered dimensions anyway). But if you just need a practical way to center the canvas around a particular coordinate, then you can simply use the navigator with the zoom marquee:
- Zoom out to the actual pixels (Ctrl + 1) or a comfortable level;
- use the navigator to put the target region in view;
- use the info pane (F8) to find the target coordinate (drop down some guides if you'd like);
- switch to the zoom tool (Z) and—with Scrubby Zoom disabled—create a marquee over the area of interest.
- Optionally, you can press and hold space to move the marquee rectangle over the target area to more precisely center the point of interest.
Or if you want to be slightly more precise, you can:
- zoom out (Ctrl + 0);
- change to the hand tool (H);
- move your mouse to roughly where you want to center your canvas (use the Info pane to see coordinates: F8), and drag it to the center of your screen;
- switch to the zoom tool (Z), and click to zoom in as much as you want.
You can switch steps 3 and 4 if you want. The zoom tool will keep your selected pixel under your cursor as you zoom in.
Though, the navigator panel and/or zoom marquee is probably easier. It's a little less precise, but I can't imagine any situation where it'd matter if your chosen pixel is 2~3% off center or 5~10% off center. As long as the line/brush stroke/anchor/guide/etc. is on target, why should it matter if the pixel isn't dead center of your display?