Historically, or in current common usage, are there any typography symbols which have the meaning "see page" or "refer to page", which can be placed near the page number?
Such page references are most commonly contained in parentheses, as @user568458 alluded to in the comments. This can change with the context. Here are two examples from my camera manual:
This is used to reference a specific function (Auto Exposure Mode) or the parent topic (Focus Tracking) related to what you were just talking about. For something with a broader scope, such as the bear text, you would typically see that italicized at the end (or beginning) of the text.