Up on the menu bar, do Type > Glyphs if all else fails.
But I played with your arrow a bit - It's MS Mincho isn't it? As soon as you select that font in InDesign, the arrow shows up when you paste.
There's actually a setting you can tweak if you want to make copying/pasting that arrow work a little better in some scenarios: Go to Edit > Preferences > Clipboard Handling and check the radio button "All Information (Index Markers, Swatches, Styles, etc.)". I changed the setting to that from "Text Only" and while it still didn't work copying from the browser, it did work when I copied and pasted from Word. I usually keep that setting off because Word does some wacky things, but if it helps you then that's great!