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91

They do. The thing is, you probably don't realise, because upper case numbers have been all you've been using or seeing. There is a distinction between 'default' numbers and 'oldstyle' numbers. The default numbers we all know are the actual capitals, with the 'oldstyle' numbers (sometimes incorrectly called 'proportional numbers') are lowercase. Fonts tend ...


90

Parallel Pens with special split nibs or something similar. Sorta like using two pens taped together into one pen with two tips An example can be found on the Scribblers calligraphy website:


79

According to Joe Scout the first company to use CMYK in printing was Eagle Printing Ink Company and the year was 1906. It was not until 1956 that it became a standard as a result of Pantone trying to streamline the workflow.[1] This however does not really answer who really invented/discovered the choice of colors, the first scientific literature to ...


35

CMYK is an improvement over CMY which itself is improvement over RYB model, which has been used for centuries (if not millennia). It's really hard to tell where one ends and the other begins, especially as some use words "red" and "blue" in more general sense. Eg. George Field's chart from 1841 lists "red, blue, yellow" but his red in our eyes looks closer ...


31

While upper case numbers do exist, as is shown in vincents answer. They did not originally exist at all. Remember our numbers are copied from the Muslim scientists, who wrote in Arabic.* Arabic is unicase, that is all letters are same case. So the notion of big and small numbers is a later development. Since the original system had no case so did the ...


26

Here are a couple of great resources that explain the origin of the hamburger menu: Who Designed the Hamburger Icon? & A Brief History of the Hamburger Icon . As the articles state, the original designer is a man named Norm Cox who designed it for the Xerox "Star" personal workstation.


25

How did they do this without computers? They used rulers. If you exclusively know how to draw with a computer: that's a straight edged object, to help guide a pen or pencil into a straight line. For really advanced technical drawings, such as the curve graph example, there were templates with different curves (elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic): There ...


24

Airphotos have been the source materials for a lot of maps for a long time. To result in a nice exact machine made look they would use dials to help draw the lines on transparent mylar sheets. The reason those maps had roads that were nice and parallel was the machines and skilled operators. Parallel Pens and parallel ruler are useful for other map making ...


22

I've always interpreted this as a more literal reference to the possession that "stealing" implies. If you've truly stolen something, then it is no longer owned by anyone else. Nor is it a copy. It's owned by you. There's the old saying that "possession is 9/10 of the law". Steal your inspiration, and own the results. I don't think anyone has truly ...


20

There is no single definable point when the CMYK Process Colour printing was discovered. High fidelity process colour reproduction printing has been a gradual series of technical refinements. The persons responsible are, however, known. Printed colour reproduction grew rapidly in popularity in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to today, ...


18

Capital letters exist as our written and printed language has decided they should. The rules for usage of capital letters typically is for starting sentences and proper nouns. The rules simply don't apply to numerals. Hence, no need for there to be 'upper case' numbers. Your example of using ALL CAPS TO SHOW EMPHASIS is actually not an ideal way to show ...


18

In 1906, the Eagle Printing Ink Company incorporated the four-colour wet process inks for the first time. These four colours were cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (also known as key), hence the name CMYK. It was discovered that these four colours can be combined to produce an almost unlimited number of richer, darker tones. Link: http://www.clubink....


16

Einstein said "The key to originality is hiding your sources". You're right, it's a concept that's been commented on by many great artists, the concept though I think is less literal than you're reading it. I think it's about originality. The idea is that there are no truly original thoughts and thus there is no truly original creation, everyone is ...


14

After some digging, I found it is called a catchword. Read more about it here: http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/65963/in-old-books-why-is-the-first-word-of-the-next-page-printed-at-the-bottom-of-th I always assumed this was to improve readability, as the reader could continue more seamlessly onto the following page, but it turns out it was also ...


14

Engineers and scientists of different branches used to have drawing classes on their curriculum. Many of these people were quite accomplished at this. We used to have row upon row of drawing boards in the classrooms in the design/engineering departments. The drawings were drawn with pencil and then inked for final results. They would then be reproduced on ...


12

There is always the parallel ruler for lines that are further apart. A more modern version would be those with rollers but that is not as good in accuracy as a fixed mechanical design.


11

Logos would be done with paste-up: text might be created using a linotype or phototypesetting machine. I personally used a machine that had fonts on wheels approx 12" in diameter which you rotated and selected individual characters using a footswitch. This exposed the type on a strip of photopaper and at the end, you'd had a line of text which you would ...


11

(BTW - nuns also made illuminated manuscripts...) Very interesting question. I have studied old manuscripts for years, and there are a few things to keep in mind; either as explanations or as interesting anomalies. I think a general history of illuminated manuscripts might also be interesting, but that would be a different question. Vellum and ...


11

What is case? The discussion both in this question and in the one it inspired on ELU seems to conflate two distinct meanings of ‘uppercase’ and ‘lowercase’: Based purely on shape and size, originating in whether a glyph was originally usually stored in the typographer’s upper or lower case (= drawer). Based on functionality, describing what upper- and ...


10

The long s 'ſ' can be found in many blackletter fonts, but the r rotunda 'ꝛ' seems to be very rare. There are several blackletter fonts by Peter Wiegel (Cat Fonts) that contain both glyphs and are for free: Rotunda Pommerania Berthold Mainzer Frkatur UNZ1A Blankenburg UNZ1A Fette UNZ Fraktur Schwaben UNZ1A Of these, Rotunda Pommerania comes closest to ...


10

I tend to keep everything digital. When floppys died I moved everything to Zip disks. When Zip disks died I moved everything to a hard drive. (considered moving to Jaz drives but was wary of yet another external format at the time) When CDs started to fade, I moved all CD content to hard drives. Primarily because by that time hard drives grew 10x+ ...


9

Imitation of an older convention It's clear that the designers of more recent currency symbols have their own rationale for including the slashes or 'strikeouts' in the symbol. It's also clear that these elements naturally evolved in older currency symbols through the use of abbreviation and shorthand. It's more than likely that modern currency symbols are ...


8

Two other methods: Engineering drawings (e.g. highway plans) usually use curves with defined radii, so drawing those is mostly a matter of using a compass and creating the geometry from the same instructions for both sides. (Edit: I say "same instructions" because roads are first defined by their centerline path, then parallel stuff is based off of that. ...


7

Asterism ⁂ (Unicode character U+2042 and HTML symbol ⁂ as well as Alt + 8258 on Windows) Used to 'indicate minor breaks in text,' call attention to a passage, or to separate sub-chapters in a book. Currency Symbol ¤ (Unicode character U+00A4 and HTML symbol ¤ or ¤ as well as Alt + 0164 on Windows) Used to denote a ...


7

The CSS font-weight is influenced by Linotype numbering system. As you can learn from the wiki, every digit in the number describes different characteristic of the typeface and from this point CSS adopted Lynotype in part... The 100 to 900 system works for some fonts, but fails for other, thus you should always check this in advance before using particular ...


7

For a little background, the reason I originally posted this question was to provide some space to answer a comment on another answer of mine. The issue revolved around pairing fonts with Helvetica and I proposed looking to structurally and historically related faces: namely the clarendons. It seems odd at first but, if you trace Helvetica's lineage (and ...


7

A storage room full of vertical files. Vertical files full of photomechanical transfers, paste up boards, sizes and sizes of photostats, type sheets. These took up rooms, often warehouses to store if the agency was a bigger agency. Then Pantone chip definitions and swatches. This is were Pantone was born and blew up. A color system which was consistent ...


6

Not sure if this is a good fit for SE, as it'd take a lot of work to make an exhaustive list, but I'll give it a go... Breakthroughs in web design (not sure these all fit your definition of 'design trend' but they certainly influence what was done visually.) (In very roughly chronological order...) the invention of the web (Tim Berners-Lee) Mosaic (first ...


6

Linotype made it to CSS over Panose system partly because of licensing concerns. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PANOSE. The Panose number is used in TrueType, OpenType and SVG fonts and contains infromation about weight, proportion, contrast etc. The Panose weight number is more or less the same system as the Linotype/CSS. From very light to extra black. ...


6

To add a bit more: What was their inspiration/model? It was part of the international style of Swiss typography (the "International style" or "Swiss style"), and is an example of a 'Grotesk' (Grotesque) sans serif (Germanic 'Grotesks' are sometimes associated with a more geometric approach than US/UK 'Grotesques'). It's a movement associated with crisp ...



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