Jpeg is not raw, jpeg is the result of a process called raw development.The original raw image needs easily 20 times more memory space than a jpeg due lack of compression and much larger brightness range.
Phones and other modern cameras have advanced raw developing software that can produce good jpgs. Ordinary displays cannot show more info than a good jpg contains, so when you watch an image which is stored as raw, you actually watch the result of the development.
To get some benefits you must get the raw image as a file to a proper raw development software. Photoshop's Camera Raw knows hundreds of different cameras (=knows, how to develop their raw files). If you're lucky, it knows also your camera.
Adobe gives a list of compatible cameras, which grows continuously, if you have a new Photoshop which is still developed. Old pre-CC Photoshops will not get updates, but that has a workaround: Adobe's DNG converter which converts new raw types to an old common format named DNG that holds a big part of the raw information.
What you could make with a raw developer better than the automatic development process in the camera? Automatic systems often guess wrong. You may want totally different
- white balance (your example is very badly yellow as far as I can see)
- brightness values that are selected to be black and white in jpg
- boost of details (=local contrast)
- overall contrast
- color saturation
Typically a JPG can have too dark or bright areas, but in raw development program one can make much better jpgs with manual adjustments.
The following is of course a fake, but something like it is often possible easily in the raw developer - at least if the camera has high quality sensor with high dynamic range:
Watch tutorials to learn "how to"!
ADD: Removal of the background is not possible in the raw development process. That work needs an already developed photo. And work means manual work with eraser, masks or clipping tools - no automatic ways still developed.