I know that it is possible in some Cad programs, but they don't provide much possibilities for art.
I'm an ArchiCAD user like you, and so understand your usage of "compound lines".
AFAIK any decent vector design program in typical use supports this, whether Adobe Illustrator, Affinity Designer or InkScape.
They're most commonly called brushes, or pattern brushes or vector brushes, and you define the pattern by drawing it with the pen or bezier tool, and then having selected the elements you're applying, you define the brush pattern.
Each application will have its own specifics: most will respect line weights in your sample (unlike ArchiCAD); some may prefer you to expand or explode stroke into fills; others won't.
Should not be hard to do.