When I create a text frame with columns, is it possible to adjust every single columns and gaps width individual? Like in the picture, there is one text frame with 3 columns (different widths) and also the gaps are different.
No. You need to use separate text frames instead of columns. To quote from Adobe directly:
You cannot create columns of unequal width in a text frame. To create columns of unequal width or height, add threaded text frames side-by-side on either a document page or a master page.