I completely realize this is hypothetical, but that head appears to have been specifically created to correlate to the uterus. It's neither strong nor dominant in my view. I would not be comfortable presenting that animal head as being "strong and dominant".
To address the unspoken issue....
I feel that people are always going to see things in your art you don't see. This hypothetical situation is no different than if you were to create a logo which you think is your "best work ever" and the client.. . simply dislikes it, but can't tell you why. Horribly frustrating to say the least.
What people see in shapes and artwork is really about them not the artwork. I don't think you can have a "blanket" reaction to anything regarding this. Each situation is unique. Some clients may see something completely out of thin air that you can not fathom being seen. And some clients may realize it's a long shot anyone else will see "that" so they are fine with things as they are. Other clients may feel what they see is unacceptable and even if you don't agree with it, they want things altered.
All you can do is react calmly, not appear to be offended, and ask where they see what they see. Then if their stance is that it's clear to them, you have to adjust.
In your sample the head could be made from a more realistic silhouette - again, clearly you purposefully made it match the uterus. Stronger, bolder horns, a better size ratio between the head and circle, simple things that would almost immediately remove the whole uterus connotation.
Sometimes clients see things and they aren't concerned about it.. other times.... well a redesign is warranted. Every situation, and client, is different.
I drive by this logo constantly....
What do you see?
I see a small happy condom. Expecting the building to be a health clinic or family planning center.. Well, it's for a fence building company. I think they meant the little character to be the top of a fence slat possibly... but that certainly isn't what it looks like to me. They like their logo and use it. So.... am I wrong for seeing what I see or are they wrong for using a logo I see as a condom?
Same goes for clients, they aren't really ever "wrong" for seeing something unintended. It's more a difference in perception and in most instances I feel a designer should strive to make their client proud and boastful about the artwork which is created for them. If that means scrapping the uterus cow for a better design... that's what I'd do without argument. I never take a hard stance in disagreement with any client's perception, even if I think it's just downright ridiculous.