A TIFF is not a simple image format, but rather a tagging system for a many different image like formats. Tiff stands for Tagged Image File Format, and is a bit like a binary version of a markup language like HTML. And just like HTML it can contain just about anything. It is perfectly possible to embed all sorts of things in TIFF images, some of which Photoshop does not support. The file is still a TIFF file, but which Photoshop can not read some or all of it.*
Now even if Photoshop can read the image data part, theres no guarantee it understands the other metadata included in the file. Or it might be able to but doe not have the capability to set the values in the range you need. Photoshop is a print preparation device after all, so it does not have a need for pixels the size of cars, which is perfectly valid for cartographers. So the pixel pitch in Photoshop is limited to 1 inch - 1/300 000:th of an inch.
In any event when Photoshop does not understand or find resolution info it will revert to 72 pixels per inch or 1/72:th of an inch which conveniently is ~0.013888889. So that adds up. The value can simply not be as large as you would want it to be in Photoshop.
This is a rather arbitrary limitation, but its built into the software not much you can do about that. So no you can not do this, but since you might not care about the unit then you may scale the data so that 1 inch = 1 meter or 10 meters, just go to Image -> Image Size... and set resoultion to be something more suitable. Just remember the resolution field is the inverse of the pixel pitch.
* So making a file a TIFF is not really a guarantee that it opens in a editor that supports TIFF files because theres always that one TIFF format it won't support.