After struggling with a different problem because I had never used Illustrator before, I finally managed to do all the shapes very closely to the originals in the destroyed image:
However, the question there extended for so long in the comments because Illustrator is, in my opinion, a devilishly confusing application (really!), that I totally forgot about the light explosion — that's an awful name, I know — behind/below the shapes. And some more important unrelated issues contributed to my hiatus in this matter as well.
All the four instances of the shape above have different sizes and are in different positions/rotations, and that has been taken care of with Illustrator. Here, my version of a different instance:
But, in general, the light effects are pretty much the same, just varying in size to follow their main shape's dimensions.
If these shapes can actually emit light it would be a bonus, but not necessarily a must. The first, for example, emits light from the bottom which illuminates the surfaces of the character's arm right below it, but because it's a concept art, that light has been made manually and thus it is disproportional, distorted, out of position, with wrong colours...
How could I do that? I'd prefer with Photoshop, but if Illustrator is required again, I'll try