The construction of fonts changed after the 50s with the Swiss International Typographic Style.
The International Typographic Style has had profound influence on graphic design as a part of the modernist movement, impacting many design-related fields including architecture and art. It emphasizes cleanness, readability, and objectivity.
Many of the early International Typographic Style works featured typography as a primary design element in addition to its use in text, and it is for this that the style is named.
If hand-made typography was the first design, and letters constructed on a grid appeared in the 18th century, then the 20th century and particularly the Swiss Style brought photographic reproduction as a crucial element for the design of its typography. Making giant photographic copies of each character, they could more easily find all the optical elements to modify to improve their designs.
- The rounded strokes exceed the limits of the baseline and the x-height so as to appear to be the same size as the characters with straight strokes.
But there are many optical rules: it's difficult to list them all, but just talking about the simple capital E:
- The three horizontal strokes of the capital E have different length
- The four strokes of the capital E have different thickness
- The center stroke of the capital E is slightly above the middle
This happens with every character of the typefaces designed at this time like Helvetica, Frutiger and Univers, and from there all the classic fonts were redesigned, or rather restructured.
Knowing this, with the exception of some more current designs, all the original fonts designed prior to this time - the beginning of the 20th century or before, do not have optical adjustments.
As an example, the Art Deco Style Fonts:
Kino from Mifonts.com
Chorus Line from wfonts.com
In the 90s there was a movement in architecture, cinema, fashion, advertising and industrial design that defied all the established rules: Deconstructivism. In graphic design it was called Trash Design and one of its great challenges was to destroy all of optical typography's arrangements or at least create fonts with no such rules. The main exhibitors of those fonts were the magazines Emigre, Mondo2000 and RayGun. Although they seem very casual design typographies, they are classics today.
Senator from myfonts.com
Lo-res from myfonts.com
Citizen from myfonts.com
Oblong from myfonts.com
A special trick to find fonts without x-height difference is to look for fonts with rounded caps strokes:
Modula Rounded from myfonts.com
Compact Rounded from fontke.com
Fonts whose lowercase design relies strongly on a structure with a double horizontal parallel axis:
Comsat via t26.com
NeuBank NF via myfonts.com
Or with orthogonal modular structure:
The classic Data 70 via myfonts.com
Russell Square via myfonts.com
Or display fonts, like:
BigBand from wfonts.com
Black Tulip from myfonts.com
Creating fonts with the same height for all the characters means eliminating the ascender and descender strokes and matching cap height and x-height. This makes it difficult to find specimens with differentiation between upper and lower case letters. There are a few exceptions:
Velvenda Cooler via dafont.com
Herald Gothic via findmyfont.com