I am making a document in Adobe Illustrator the problem is I want to be able to print it in both monotone and color just visible fine, however for monotone the values of each element don't match, and I don't know how to do that. I tried copying the element's "S" and "B" values of it HSB to another elements but it did not work.
I guess you cannot control how the document will be printed. People print it with what they happen to have. Someone prints it with BW laser printer, someone has colors.
When people print your document with random printers do not expect that they mix colors equally to greyshades. Office printers will do as they will. Actually you have no way to force them use the wanted CMYK values because office printers need RGB input altough internally (if color) they operate in CMYK. Your only way to control the result is to make a file that has same color in places which should have same greyshade.
I believe a professional printhouse wants you to give a proper greyshade print PDF prepared for their process, if you intensively enough demand consistent greyshades. Then it's up to you how you place the greyshades. I haven't met this situation.
Assuming that different printers will print colors as greyshades "right", you need still a compatible set of colors. You can make them in Photoshop or in any program which has HCL (hue-chroma-lightness) or CieLAB color mode by selecting one color and making from it variations with Hue adjustment.
The following image is in Photoshop. Color mode = Lab. The leftmost color is the original, others are made of it with Hue&Saturation dialog:
Those colors have equal perceptional luminosities and they will produce the same greyshades if they are converted to geyshades honoring the perceptional luminosities.
If we add a white stripe with blending mode Saturation over the image, we get constant greyshade:
This of course works only in Lab mode.
Let's convert it to RGB:
There's no sameness left. But the RGB values are still quite right. If we convert the RGB image to greyshade color mode, we get:
Making the mode change directly from Lab to greyshade would give a flat grey image.
Unfortunately in Lab mode is possible to produce unprintable colors, even colors which cannot be shown in RGB screens. Also in RGB is possible to make unprintable colors. Keep saturation levels far from the extreme. Preferably start in CMYK mode.
If you keep in Lab color mode the Gamut Warning ON, you see as grey those colors which do not fit in the selected proof color space (= usually the used CMYK printing method but you can also select RGB in custom proof color setup )