There is nothing wrong. What you are describing is completely normal, and to be expected. Since you are relatively new to this, your confusion is understandable. The reason this happens is not obvious.
To begin with, JPEGs are not RAW images. JPEG is a format which has lossy compression. RAW images are unprocessed images from a camera, such as NEF, CR2, or DNG formats. Don't confuse JPEGs that come out of your camera with RAW files. These are completely different things.
When you open a JPEG in a raster image editor such as GIMP or Photoshop the compressed image is expanded to full size - it's no longer a compressed JPEG.
When you save the file as XCF, ie GIMP's native file format, it is an uncompressed format, so the file size will be much bigger than a JPEG.
The same thing happens if you open a JPEG in Photoshop, and save as a PSD (ie Photoshop's native file format).
For example, I open this JPEG in Photoshop shown below. The file size is 109kb.
Opening in Photoshop, and saving as a PSD (Photoshop's native file format) the files size is 889kb - that's more than 8 times bigger.
When I do the same in GIMP with the same image, the XCF is 861kb.
Also note that if you add layers to the original image, the file size will get much bigger - essentially, each layer is a new image.
As for disk space - external hard drives are cheap. You can buy external 1TB hard drives for less than £50GBP/€56/US$65. Honestly, these days 23mb is not really a large image size. Some new professional cameras produce RAW files in excess of 40mb per image! I frequently retouch professional images, and it's not uncommon to end up with Photoshop PSD files that are 300mb!
To save disk space
You might not want to save XCF files if you don't need to edit the image again. You can export your image as a JPEG again - although it's not a particularly good idea to edit jpegs repeatedly, and save them again, because the quality will degrade slightly each time. However, in your case it probably won't make much difference, and won't be that noticeable. Don't overwrite your original JPEG files - keep these. Work on copies of your files. If you want to do the work again, you can edit your original JPEG files that you kept.
In GIMP, to export click File > Export As, choose JPEG as the file type - don't add too much compression or you will degrade the quality - keep the compression setting to no lower than 7 or 8.
Also note that XCF and PSD images are no good for the internet. They don't work in browsers.