Is it possible to make even distance positioning of lines of different length around circle or curve?
From where you are now you can just make a circular guide.
- draw a circle with a size that will be the new starting point for your lines;
- make it a guide (View > Guides > Make Guides or CMD+5 / CTRL+5 for Windows);
- select the anchors (the ones near the center) using the Lasso tool (Q), for example
- with smart guides enabled, scale your lines (S) and drag until they intersect with the guide
There's multiple ways you could achieve this, but most of them are taking a couple steps back: redraw the entire graphic, starting with image 1 and editing that into image 2.
- draw a circle;
- draw a vertical line;
- drag that vertical line, grabbing it by its bottom anchor, aligning it exactly on top of the circle's top anchor;
- switch to the rotate tool, the line still selected;
- click on the circle's centre to set that as the rotation source;
- Alt+click to open up a dialog;
- enter 20° for the angle and click 'Copy' rather than 'OK';
- choose 'Object' > 'Transform' > 'Transform Again' (Ctrl/Cmd+D) sixteen times;
- separately edit your lines' widths and lengths.
A workaround would be to add an additional white stroke to the center circle through the appearance panel (make sure to place it beneath the original black stroke) and give this a very high thickness.
Then, place the circle on top of everything else (Object > Arrange > Bring to Top). This way, the white stroke will cover up the inner ends of your lines, making it look like they all have the same distance to the circle. Adjust stroke with of the white stroke to achieve the desired distance.
Let's assume your ray lines are drawn quite freely, some are too far away and some are too near the circle center. Drag all starting from the interior of the circle. Don't do it one by one, use effect Distort & Transform > Pucker & Bloat
It's useful in the very beginning copy the circle to the clipboard (you need a copy) and lock the circle to keep it in safe
You can fix the effect (=make the lines again to editable curves) by applying Object > Expand appearance
Now paste in place the circle copy and give to it black fill, scale it to the wanted distance size. Use it as opacity mask for the lines:
As well you can select the lines and the scaled circle and then split all with Pathfinder panel function Outline. You lose all colors and stroke widths, you must put them back manually. Then you must manually delete the unwanted splinters. That's destructive edit. I recommend opacity mask because it can be released and edited. Cipping masks have the same property.
The rays are probably too long now. You can resize or split them manually or insert a clipping mask. Clipping mask can be a compound path and at the same time do the job of the scaled circle, no opacity mask is needed.
Resizing manually is possible in isolation mode. Double-click a ray and drag its bounding box corner, hold Shift at the same time to keep the direction unchanged:
Leave isolation mode with Esc key.
BTW. It's no need to mess with the pucker effect, if you resize the rays one by one. You can as well drag both corners. It was suggested actually in the fist comment you have got.