Is there a color replacement adjustment layer in Photoshop?
If not, why not? And can its effect be achieved using another method?
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Image > Adjustment > Replace Color allows you to save the change receipe as *.ATX file. You can load it when you apply Replace Color to a new image.
This is useful if the color range to be replaced has sharp borders in the image. There's no need to have the same geometric form nor size.
If you have a single layer image like this
and you want "Replace yellow with blue, do it equally in the mixes, too and do it without messing the mix in any way otherwise" you are out of luck. This system cannot decide right what was yellow's role in the mixes. You get something like this (dirty colors, grey):