I would like to reproduced some parts of this figure and add some features as well!
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The shortest way to make a replica is to have all needed items as high resolution photos, drawings or rendered 3D models. Low res screenshots are probably useless because there must be some resolution reserve for transformations.
Everything must already have the right viewing angle, it cannot be modified substantially in 2D. Mirroring and scaling are possible, rotation and skewing give easily unnatural results when the subject is a 3D object in a photo.
There are some black curves which can easily be drawn. But you will need to draw much more. There's many items which must be "background removed" You must draw clipping paths to extract the items.
You must also draw the curved frame of all items, the bowl and the borders between the materials.
You must warp some items to make them fit better against each other.
Some needed photos:
Not asked, but if you are going to publish something which contains other images, you need proper license to use the images. Simply copying what you happen to find can cause troubles, even lawsuits or your work stays unpublished, because the publisher do not take a risk.
All composing work can be done in Photoshop, GIMP, Affinity Photo or other multilayer bitmap image drawing program which allows transparency, masking, clipping, layer blending modes, warping, basic color adjustments, solid color fills, gradient fills and drawing highly regular bezier curves as clipping or masking edges and also visible paths.
A competent illustrator can compose this in Adobe Illustrator. Everything can be also a 3D model, but the task is gigantic, so I recommend Photoshop or other bitmap program.
You must learn to handle all mentioned Photoshop methods reliably to get the wanted result.
If you expect someone will show here how to make the replica, you want too much. But some detail in the process can be a reasonable question. If you knock your head to an obstacle when you do the work, you can well show what you have got and ask, how to get over or around.
Please, do not forget to show, what you have already done, if you ask some details. Questions "I want to know how this is done!" will collect here downvotes and have a tendency to get closed.
Almost any 3D program.
Let's say you ask, what type of brush can you use to make this kind of 2 portraits, different looks
But knowing the tool, a brush, will not tell you how to paint neither.
So, a simple answer is, almost any 3D program will do.
The best recommendation I can give you is to use Blender that is a really, really good program, where you have all the tools you need to do that image and more.
But you need to separate the elements. The terrain cropped in a cylinder, the different layered materials, a series of cubes representing buildings, etc.
The style is given by the light, the materials and the render engine, so you need to explore that.
The render engine, in this case, looks a bit cartoonish, so explore using the direct light without bounces and specular reflections, not glossy ones.