How is this type of medieval drawing form is called? Can this be praticed today with contemporary tools?
EDIT: hand-tools, not computer programs
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That would depend on the type of book this was found.
It can be a Xylography, which can be traced to the XIII century, which is a type of engraving.
It could be a pen drawing, made with... a pen and ink... if it is not on a printed book, but a hand drew one.
The invention of the European press by Gutenberg is one of the elements that separates the Renaissance from the Middle Ages, but this type of drawing could be early Renaissance work.
If it is a reproduction it could be done using a more modern type of engraving on metal with acid, Etching. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etching
(Be careful handling acid)
If you want to do this not for reproduction, I would recommend a real calligraphic pen. You would need to test different types of pens, some are soft metal so it can give you different widths on the traces.