Usually any line that looks okay on a dark background, looks much thinner on a lighter background. In that case, is it allowed in design principles to increase the stroke width of a logo on a lighter background, to match the visual intensity all around?
I, personally, don't think it needs increased based upon your sample images.
As for is it "okay".. Ideally no, it's not. Logos should never deviate from any brand guidelines due to a specific usage. But that's a generalization. If brand guidelines don't cover some aspects then there may be call for a new variation (such as reversing). Typically such variations involve color alteration, and not weight alterations.
Without seeing specifically the image you are referring to, In general, I'd suggest perhaps using a reverse version, black rule on light background.
There are guidelines to design but they aren't rules that you must follow. Take Superdry for example, they have various logos which they use for specific circumstances. If your logo is black and you're putting it on black paper then obviously you're going to change it.
If it's your logo, do what you want. If it's for a client, suggest the change to them.
For this specific example, I don't there is anything wrong with it being on orange. If you are going to change it make the changes more obvious and intentional so it doesn't look like there is an error/inconsistency in your design.