In theory you can draw in Inkscape images which have resembling textures. There's ready to use grainy effects and nothing prevents you inserting your own effects or editing the existing ones. Unfortunately there's 2 big obstacles:
complex effects make Inkscape slow, you probably will lose your creative flow with sluggishly responding tools
SVG effects are hard to create and edit, the learning curve will be very steep except in that lucky case you happen to be a genius
You can also use traced strokes as "patterns along paths" to create complex strokes.
A bitmap image - this is a brush stroke copied and pasted from Photoshop. As easily one could draw this in GIMP.
Image 1 traced to vector shape in Inkscape
A random curve drawn with the pen
Shape 3 after applying extension Pattern along Path, the pattern is in image 2. The result has got fill color = red. It's a filled path, not any more a stroke.
Shape 3 copy without stroke , but filled with solid blue color and a pgrainy path effect applied. The effect is Filter > Scatter > Pointillism with its default settings.
If you put a grainy curve-like shape (=3) with reduced opacity and a little blur in place of a stroke, you are quite near your wanted texture.
You have already got a suggestion to use something like Photoshop or GIMP. That's a good idea because grainy things are simply too complex for Inkscape.
I suggest a hybrid approach. Check Affinity Designer. You can draw vector shapes like in Inkscape, but you can apply complex bitmap textures as fills and strokes (=image brushes) without making the program slow. Even gradients can have grainy colors.