Math is needed in the infrastructure that makes graphic work possible. One must calculate material consumption, space needs, lengths, volumes, weights, money, the need of memory megabytes etc.... And of course, the tools often have needed a lot of engineering work with complex math. That work belongs to engineers and mathematicians, artists use the results.
But graphic work itself? At least there's some generally accepted and useful composition and projection rules. You can show how to utilize Illustrator when using them and prove that the method is mathematically right.
If you plan to create drawings of organic shapes with math, that's possible, but the needed math obviously is far beyond the elementaries. Of course nothing prevents us to use the results. Clever programmers have generated for example terrain, hair, fur, skin and floral pattern generators.
If you do admit that this is artificial, you can show how quite rich patterns can be generated by varying parameters in function expressions. Illustrator's blending is one practical application of it. Actually the whole functionality of Illustrator or other graphical programs is based on math. That math can be presented, but mainly as qualitative and with minimalistic full examples. If you find a way to model something real with understandable math, that's great. You can try hair as blendig, but the shapes must be quite complex and it's impossible to present them as simple equations. The blending itself probably is presentable.
Here's an old case:
How to create this pattern?
This is elementary, but it is not possible to solve without elementary math.
Analyzing a photo and finding from there actual relations is one possible subject. For ex. reconstruct an object as seen from another direction or find some actual lengths and placements.
If someone is forced calculate something during making a drawing with a program, it's easily seen as a fault. So, do not create situations where creative process is interrupted with seemingly arbitary limitations where something must be calculated in the middle. I'm sure that artists suffer if they are forced to interrupt and perform something which they already have placed to a lower level.
If you find a way to prove that doing some math in the start can prevent a stalemate in the middle of a work, that surely is appreciated. Unfortunately I am not sophisticated enough that I could write proper and interesting examples.