Every line can be a projection of an arc along the surface of a sphere. Those arcs are drawn for ex. from equator to equator and you watch them from far above the north pole. All arcs happen to be in planes which are seen exactly sideways.
Actually the arcs can be also deeper inside the sphere or outside it as long as they are in the planes which are parallel with the watching direction and the seen projections happen to reach from equator to equator.
The arcs can be arbitarily complex, even discontinuous curves as long as their twists are seen only sideways and the discontinuities are hidden by seen overlaps.
So, it's not the image of an unique 3D composition. There are infinitely different 3D compositions which can produce the same seen 2D projection. The composition contains the curves and the used 2D projection.
I believe the family of ALL possible 3D causes for the seen 2D result has no commonly used name. But this is only a belief.
In 2D the lines are all possible chords drawn to equally spaced directions from equally spaced points on a circle curve. In 3D one of the possiblities is the same drawing that you already have in XY plane, but the plane is watched from Z direction.
A widely used name for your 2D pattern can exist. Ancient astronomers with their earth centric sky model needed chords for their calculations and they had made chord tables to reduce the calculation effort. At least Ptolemy and Hipparkhos had them. Unfortunately my knowledge ends to these splinters. If the subject is interesting, read this for a start: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy%27s_table_of_chords
I see it's also possible that this pattern can be seen as a western misconception of some Indian graphic art style.
You may see the pattern as a shaded sphere. That's not nonsensense because one possible 3D cause of the pattern is a bunch of arcs along the surface of a sphere. Free holes between the seen lines are biggest in the middle and smallest at the edge. With some tough math or numerical analysis one could tell how well the lines approximate some generally used shading formula of a sphere.