Here is a simmilar question: How to get 10 different colors that are easily recognizable
First of all. Forget for now the names. Color in general and color naming, in particular, is subjective. But if you want to go by names, take a look at this question: List of RGB quaternary (and beyond) colors?
But let's try to explore. Color models are 3D figures.
You probably have seen color tables like this:
But let us explore the exact same color table arranged in an HSB mode. The arrange is mechanical, the groups represent the brightness and the concentric rings saturation.
The distances between the values are exactly the same, but the perception of the colors, as explained in the other post varies a lot, and cannot be mechanical. Compare the differences between the green and its surrounding greens, and the ones around yellow.
As you can see, when we have already used the most saturated colors, the circles start to shrink, and therefore the amount of colors reduces.
Now I will use the same diagrams as the other post I linked so take it as part 2 of that post.
A. Ok; Red, Green, Blue is a good start.
B. Yellow is an obvious choice. A lot of people see these 4 colors as primary colors.
C. Orange, Magenta, Cyan seem reasonable.
D. Ok Now it starts to get tricky. Purple or Grape? Lime? Light Blue? But not as light as cyan?
So, we need to start using a different layer of that 3D solid. Let's go darker.
E. The only 3 clear choices are black, Dark green and brown (dark orange).
And again, things are subjective... Dark Red (blood?) Wine? Dark blue? Is turquoise there?
F. So we need to go to pastel colors. Beige, white, pink. Probably "baby yellow" and "Lavanda".
But as you can see using a color Light blue will confuse with the already picked light blue. Light green can be confused with Lime. Salmon can be confused with pink.
And you can get away with a couple of grays, not 50 shades of them... Probably a "steel blue" (if that exists) and "olive".
As you can see, picking a large palette is quite difficult. I managed to get a bit above 25 easily recognizable colors, without the need to compare them.
But 100? No way.