I'm looking to create a similar text-effect as is in the picture. Ideally, the text could be "split" into different sections which could be colored to do shading of sorts. If possible, I would like to keep it symmetrical and neat.
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This could be achieved by using multi colour fonts which are now supported in Illustrator CC.
This is an example below created using a free (for personal use*) colour font called Letter Board provided by fonts.lol, which I installed, typed some text, and then converted to outlines for recolouring.
Interestingly you can also colour the font to your own custom colour palette before you download it and then install, so you don't even need to recolour it in Illustrator at all.
I also found a more similar font to your example here on Creative Market which isn't free, so I can't test it.
*Note: A commercial licence is also available
I have no connection/affiliation with the fonts.lol or creativemarket.com websites.
If you want to start something which seems to be simple, you can try this:
It needs a simple font which contains only equally wide straight or circular lines and where two lines meet, they are either parallel or perpendicular. It doesn't work if there's usual V or N with sharp corner angles, they must have circular arcs instead of sharp corners, only 90 degree corners are allowed.
I haven't such font, so I drew one letter. In the left there's my drawn J. It got 8mm wide grey stroke, the parts are expanded and united to to a single strokeless closed shape, there's no stroke!
3D effect Extrude&Bevel is applied. There's only wireframe shading and 4 mm bevel
The extrusion result is expanded(=Object > Expand Appearance). The result seems to be ready to get filled with colors.
It isn't. It's a mess.
It needed releasing a clipping mask and three ungroupings. There were so many overlapping curves that I ended to select one black curve, then to select the same stroke color and press DEL. The released strokeless clipping masks were left.
I selected the remainders, filled the areas with the shape builder and gave some arbitary colors. The result is in the right.