Printing with common CMYK inks to usual papers simply cannot create the colors you expect. You have a theoretical possiblity to define all colors you need as Pantone numbers and order a multiplate spot color printing which uses exactly the colors you specified. For most of us it's only a dream because the cost probably jumps through the ceiling and in practice only a few colors can be placed reliably.
Adobe print production software (Photoshop, Illustrator, Indesign, Acrobat) can predict properly what well specified printing processes make and show the result right onscreen or at least as well as your monitor can show them. That' the "Color Management" One must ask the color profile from the printshop. The professional ones probably can give all needed color and printing settings, if asked.
What's the big idea to use the mentioned color management practices, if good colors cannot be printed? That's because good colors are relative. If all colors in a page are well selected and printed as wanted, a good looking page is well possible to produce, no matter the color range (=Gamut) is limited.
One must avoid unprintable colors because they will become messy in printing. Printable colors will come out as seen on the screen, if you have a calibrated screen and you use color management.
ADD due questioner's comment:
With office printers which present themselves as RGB printers and have no color profile which can be inserted to system, one can well make something which is alive on the screen but is killed when it's printed.
You must design with colors which can be printed. You can design in CMYK mode for ex. having working cmyk = Euroscale Uncoated, but you must obviously produce still RGB files to be sure they can be used properly (=print with low cost printers, place into MS Office documents etc. normal works with tools which have only RGB). If you work in photoshop you simply change the mode from CMYK to RGB when the design is done.
If you make PDFs you can define the output color mode, no matter do you design in CMYK. When you convert CMYK colors to RGB, you lose very little, much less than by converting bright RGB colors to CMYK.
You can also do this:
Find and paint a good color combination in Photoshop in CMYK mode. Convert that raster image to RGB and save it as PNG or JPG. Import that image to a RGB mode drawing program and pick colors from it. That will work with programs which know nothing about CMYK printing (=Inkscape, MS Office, etc...)