Affinity Photo allows you to select several layers at the same time and apply the same filtering to all selected layers
In Krita you can define filtering with Krita's own filters to happen as "filtering mask" which is effectively like Photoshop's layer style except it works with different set of filterings. To apply the same filtering to another layer you must Ctrl+Drag the filtering mask on the wanted layer in layers panel.
Add-on filters, I mean G'MIC collection, do not know filtering masks, but you can apply last G'MIC filter to another layer simply changing the active layer and clicking Filter > Re-Apply last G'MIC Filter.
Finally there's some on-line image editors. At least Photopea allows one to select several raster layers and filter them all with one command.