The re-use of similar shapes, patterns, spacing, type, colour and other elements throughout a design can simply be referred to as Repetition.
I would say that the Premier League example you provided demonstrates simple repetition. However there are terms for repetition at different scales which you might find interesting:
Self-Similarity refers to "a property in which a form is made up of parts similar to the whole or to one another" (Lidwell, Holden and Butler, 2010). Repeating design elements in this way, suggests an underlying order in a composition.
Self-similarity in natural forms - often at different scales - is sometimes referred to as Recursion. In the case of Recursion, an input is received, modified slightly and output as a similar form to the original. Trees, ferns, coastlines, and shells offer some examples of this. M.C. Escher demonstrated recursion and self-similarity in much of his work. Fractal art also demonstrates recursion.
M.C. Escher, Smaller And Smaller, 1956
Found example of fractal art
(Possible source: matthewjamestaylor.com)
- Lidwell, W., Holden, K. and Butler, J. (2010). Universal Principles of Design. Beverly, Mas.: Rockport Publishers.