Not sure I entirely understand you question, but I'll take a guess.
Open the layers panel, expand the layers so you can find all the objects within, the find the layer or object you want and select it as shown below. The object or layer will be selected on the artboard.
Note: This also works in reverse, select the object on the artboard, and the relevant object will be shown in the layers panel.
Edit further to comments:
Although Locate Object has no shortcut key, it is possible to record the Locate Object as an action and assign a hotkey to the run the action. I tested this and it seems to work. Hopefully it's what you are looking for. I assigned Ctrl+F2 as the hotkey. Remember if you work on a laptop you may also need to hold down the Fn key to access the F keys.