That's a tricky one. I'd know more how to align objects on a path in After Effect then Illustrator. The only thing I can think of would be to create a pattern. Window > Pattern Options.
I'd then select the pathern I'd wish to make, such as a red circle and select Make Pattern in the top right hamburger menu:
You could play with the settings on the Pattern Options and perhaps there are some that'll make it align the path. When your satisfied with the settings, save the pattern and it'll go to your Swatches.
Make an illustration and asign the new patter to your illustration:
I don't have too much time to test out and recreate exactly what you wish to achieve, but I wish this gives you a good path!