You can get part of the way there via Astute Graphic's Phantasm Plug in and Ai's built in Transform Each function.
Select and use
Effect > Phantasm > Halftone in the Menu with the Phantasm Plug in Installed. (there is a free trial available for this paid plug in, but it's also one of the few plugins I feel is worth every penny they want).
Note I have the options for the plug in set to Square for the shape.
This results in artwork split into little squares...
Object > Expand Appearance then
Object > Ungroup from the menu.
Object > Transform > Transform Each from the menu. Tick the Random option and adjust the Move sliders.
Resulting in random dispersement of the squares... The amount of dispersion depends upon the values of the move sliders in the Transform Each dialog.
From here it's a matter of simply moving things.
I think there's a script somewhere to move objects based on a given point but I'm unable to find anything at this time.
If you use
Transform Each in steps you can get some closer results...
Also if you alter artwork and adjust some of the Phantasm settings you can achieve the size variation of the squares. Here, I've added 20% grey stroke to the art before using the plug in. the decreased value causes the plug in to create smaller "dots" for the halftone effect. I also adjusted the curve the plug in uses.
Disclosure: I have no stake or investment in Astute Graphics or their Phantasm plug in. I have however, been given software free of charge from Astute Graphics in exchange for my evaluation and/or opinions.