I have a photo that is not of very high quality and and these kinds of small cracks all over its surface.
Is there a way to reduce this effect?
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You can use luminance noise reduction, but the overall result will be to lose detail.
If that is part of a much larger image, sharpening or using high-pass on the result might regain some apparent edge detail, but on that small segment it's hard to tell.
Quick bluff through Photoshop, no re-sharpening as I don't know what needs to be sharpened from so little information…
I ran a high-pass too, but with no real hope of knowing which detail needs to be recovered it's a total guess…
A better guess could be made from the full image - blur or blank out any personal details, faces etc, if you need to.