This is only a comment, but too long to be written as a comment.
The causes of color blindness vary. The color selective sensor cells in the eye have color filters which make them able to coarsely make difference between separate wavelengths. The wavelength ranges of the filters are wide and they overlap, but the processing in the brain makes possible to see a wide variety of colors.
Possible mechanisms of color blindness:
1) The person has colored material in his eye in front of the color selective cells, it's like you watched through colored glass and a part of the wavelengths would be lost before they reach the sensor cells
2) The person has radically abnormal color filter pigments in his color selective cells, so the postprocessing in the brain is based on wrong parameters, some wavelengths can be lost and the overlapping of the bands can be too wide.
3) The signal routing between the eye and the brain causes crosstalk or transmission errors
4) The postprocessing in the brain has a bug
Faults 3 and 4 do not generate differences, if the color is seen wrongly in a CMYK print, it's seen wrongly also on the RGB screen
Faults 1 and 2 affect easily differently when one compare their effects on RGB screen images and CMYK prints. Some RGB screens send filtered white light. The white background light can have wide spectrum without narrow band peaks. A color blind person must see those RGB colors equally with the CMYK print colors which are watched in white light without narrow band peaks.
Light which contains only some narrow band peaks can be seen as a predictable color if the powers of the peaks are selected right. Some led displays really produce only 3 wavelengths and they still produce full sRGB range colors. Also a strong effectively produced LCD backlight can have only narrowband peaks. The poor spectrum discrimination capability of our sight is fully utilized. A color blind person with faults 1 or 2 can see very different color when he compares two colors which normal persons see as the same, but one of the colors has a peakless wide spectrum and the other contains only narrowband peaks. That's because those narrowband peaks are designed for normal color filtering in the eye.
You can get an idea of the effect if you can compare natural color materials in daylight and in old style powerful white street or industry hall lamp light which has narrow band peaks. Many natural or badly designed artificial color materials have reflection and absorption peaks which makes their color unpredictable in white light which contains only narrow band spectrum peaks.
Unfortunately the categorization of the color blindness cases is based on which colors cannot be seen and which look the same on certain test images. I cannot tell how one can find the physical fault numbers 1...4 that I used when he sees a Latin name of a color blindness case.
The story above is only simple everyman-level reasoning. I guess you should ask color blindness experts to get valid quantitative knowledge. Most of us make and mangle images and layouts, some of us are creative artists, too and some of us make succesfully money with graphic works. But very few of us have some scientific quality knowledge of sight faults.