(This is sort of a "non-answer" so it might get removed at some point, but what I have to say is too long for a comment.)
I've been trying to achieve this for years and this question made me give it another go. I've tried all sorts of solutions to try to come up with an answer for you. The more I try the more I understand why it's not just a built-in function in InDesign. It might not be such a good idea and it might not even make logically sense!
I guess you want to anchor your full page images in order to make everything dynamic. You want to be able to edit the text, change the font size, change the margins etc. and the full page images should neatly follow the anchor around and help you automatically layout your book.
But there are some logical/geometric problems with this that I don't think it's achievable with anchored objects. Maybe with some complex scripting, but to write such script and set it up to fit each new project might be way more time consuming than to manually choose where to place the images.
I can't easily illustrate these problems since they involve things that aren't physically possible.
Problem 1: If the anchor is on a right page
In the example you are showing we have an achored full page image on the left page of the spread and you want all the text there to move to the right page. Let's assume you have achieved that. What happens if you edit something which moves the anchor to a right page? Then the layout will break. The image can't be placed on the left page and push away the text there since this would move the text from the right page containing the anchor to the next left page and there would be an empty page. The alternative would be to either place the image on the right page and move the text to the next left page or to place the image on the next left page, but as far as I know, anchored objects can only be on the same spread as the anchor. Even if it was possible you would have to have separate styles for anchors on left and right pages which goes against the whole idea of having a dynamic design.
Problem 2: Multiple anchors on one page
What happens if you end up having two anchors to full page images on one page? The two images should be placed on the following two pages. Firstly, as mentioned before, it's not possible to have anchored objects on another spread than the anchor and secondly, if it was possible, you would need to manually change the style of the second image to make it jump to the next page. The problem only grows if you have more than two anchors on a page.
Make your styles and style all the text. Make sketches, lists, tables of images and try to predict how many pages you are going to need for images. Place your images manually either starting from the beginning working your way through the book or work on individual chapters. Accept some chaos in the process. :-)