I have a tower illustration which has circular floors, of differing sizes. I have small, but detailed plan views of each floor, and I want to arrange them around the tower to serve as an over all map. Each floor will get its own page as well so this is for orientation as much as anything.
This question is opinion based. But here is my logic.
As you are asking for "design principles" I should say:
1. The design should be intuitive
2. If the design is not intuitive enough you should provide the clues to decode it
I am not sure if evoking another-separated design logic (some clock hands) is the right approach unless your building has 12 floors.
Let's explore some variants.
Having the information about the first floor at the top could be ok on a list.
But we insert the image of the building, we are probably making the relationship between item position and floor location. So, is the top item, the top floor?
We could assume that a clockwise disposition of elements has logic.
But we are assuming everyone will have in mind the way to decode the design
And probably that is not the case
In my opinion, you need to give the clues to decode the message on the message itself. Being a it more flexible with the disposition of elements:
Draw the top floor at 12 o'clock and the bottom floor at 6 o'clock. Draw the rest near their relative elevations even numbers to the right and odd numbers to the left, have floor number identifiers and lines which point to right elevation in the tower shape. If the floors have some special names let them be well visible, too. More complex floors can have bigger images if that can remove a need to find detailed pages.
Nobody has stated a certain drawing practice is a must. Decide how to show the essentials clearly without forcing the user of the document search elementaries.