Only a workaround (a complex one) and it's well possible that too complex patterns cause something unexpected:
The red shape should be actually black and filled with a pattern. A large enough piece of the pattern is made as tiled clones. Actually a preset fill pattern is released by applying Object > Pattern > Pattern to Objects and the result is tiled.
The tiled clones are Unlinked to individual objects, ungrouped and combined with Path > Union. A copy of the red shape is placed on top for the wanted fill placement. See NOTE2!
Path > Intersect is applied to remove the extras. It's useful to duplicate the red shape before it because it's needed another time at exactly the same place in step 4.
The red shape is converted to path (Path > Stroke to Path) because generally fonts cannot have strokes, only filled paths. Overlaps at the edges occur. They can be removed by making an union. I do not actually know what overlaps cause, so I recommend you to avoid them.
NOTE1: it's practically impossible to place the red shape right after it's no more a stroke, so be sure it's placed before applying Stroke to Path.
NOTE2: If the result after steps 2 or step 3 needs some edits, for example removing harmfully splitted shapes in the fill pattern, it can be useful to explode the combined path by applying Path > Break apart, but that will cause a mess if there's subshapes which have holes. So, be sure that the shapes are ok before the union is made.
I tested what Illustrator says of PDF which is made of pattern filled SVG. Inkscape didn't make anything useful of it. In Illustrator it was possible to convert the PDF in Illustrator to the same as what's seen in image 2. I guess It's not especially useful.