I have been seeing this style all over the internet and I would like to know its name, here's an example:
Art is not so definitive as to provide a specific name for everything you may see.
Not every style of art has a name.
I'd merely call this an "illustration"... maybe a "vector illustration". But that's making an assumption that it's vector in nature.
Beyond that, any words I would use to describe it - comic, cartoon, high contrast, etc. - would probably similar to what you use to describe it.