This is all an opinion-based answer from my own experience. It may be helpful. While the suggested duplicate links are good links, they seem to relate more to the technical abilities of the devices, not general usage.
For what it's worth... I have used an Wacom Intuos on a desktop system for many years and have several iPads floating around. I don't own a Cintiq (explained below). And I've had brief exposure to other devices over the years such as a Samsung Note or SurfacePro, but nothing long-term where those are concerned.
While it does take some adjustment, eventually the way the pressure and disconnect from the screen with a drawing tablet (Intuos) works becomes second nature. It's fairly impossible to get a grasp on how well a tablet will work for you in a short amount of time. I find it takes at least a week of continual use to simply start to adjust properly. I'd estimate that it took roughly a month of continual usage before it felt natural to me. Then it took more time to figure out good software settings to accommodate my style. Today, I use my Intuos tablet 100% of the time in all applications. I have not even touched a mouse/trackpad etc in years other than to install an OS and then Wacom drivers.
With respect to "screen tablets" - iPad, Cintiq, etc... I hate them. Much of my natural drawing is propelled by wrist pivoting and finger movements. I am not one who draws from my elbow, or shoulder, in most instances. What this means is... I really need to rest the ball of my wrist on a surface to draw effectively. I simply cannot draw effectively, and naturally, if I need to hover my hand above a surface.
While screen tablets have come a long way toward "ignore hand".. I haven't found them reliable enough in this respect. So, that means I need a smudge glove or some other object between my wrist and the screen. This can make things more unnatural.
In addition, PRESSURE!!!!! Now I have not tried every screen out there. But when I draw I rely upon natural pressure in the drawing nib. I just normally vary pressure when I draw. Again, screens have come a long way toward seeing that.. but.. they aren't there yet for me. I have tried many devices or styluses (Stylii?).. the Apple/Adobe Pen, Wacom Inkling, etc. in an effort to get my natural pressure to be read effectively on a screen. The Cintiq obviously does a good job in this respect. But anything else with a screen seems to fail for me. (The Intuos tablet does as good a job as a Cintiq - it's more about where one is actually drawing regarding the Wacom products.)
Disclosure: Because I detest the "hover" aspect I have never invested in a Cintiq myself. I have tried them countless times over a few decades at trade shows, via colleagues, etc. And while I feel 100% adept with the Intuos, I always seem to have the same "hover" issue on any Cintiq due to the nature of the device. -- And.. I have only ever used Wacom drawing tablets. I know for a fact that Adobe only tests software with Wacom drivers. I can not comment on how any other drawing tablet on the market may function - good or bad. All I know is Wacom.
So.. with all that being posted... I actually still prefer my Wacom Intuos drawing tablet or pen and paper with a scanner. I may use an iPad to quickly jot an idea down, but I could never actually complete a full illustration on such a device. I find it far too time consuming and I fight too many device "hurdles" making it a "thinking" process more than a "creative" process, if that makes sense.