There are several ways to produce similar results.
I. The most basic one is the one explained by Billy Kerr, and it is not "basic" as "simple", but "basic" as fundamental. You need to understand the fundamentals of vector design.
But it might present a problem of flexibility. What happens if you want the circles in some other place? You need to break the polygons again. This leads you to some other approaches.
II. Filters and blending modes
See if you can put an object above the first one, that changes the color of the object or image below. It could be a blending mode or it can be an object that changes the hue or saturation of the previous image. It could invert the curves or something like that.
A basic one is a simple transparency, but in reality, this is a blending mode. Normal blending mode.
One common blending mode is Difference.
III. Another trick is masking.
In vector images you can use a clipping mask; put the entire image inside, and manipulate it. In this case, I just changed hue and saturation. When you see both together you see these kinds of color changes on a shape.