To very much over-simplify… [full explanations in Wikipedia links]
Focus distance == distance from lens to the plane in sharpest focus.
Focal length == amount of 'zoom' of a lens, how close or far your subject appears, measured in mm.
F-stop [or in cinema T-stop] == the width of the 'hole' (aperture) that allows light into the camera body. [F-stop is measured in physical distance across the gap/focal length, T-stop is measured in absolute light transmission & is much more difficult, & consequently expensive, to achieve a constant value.]
Aperture (& to an extent focal length) determines your depth of field - the distance between the nearest and the farthest objects that are in acceptably sharp focus in an image
On a traditional stills camera lens, changing focus distance will slightly affect focal length*, even on a non-zoom lens. This is generally known as 'breathing'. The same effect is seen if you change the focal length on a zoom lens, the focus distance changes.
Cinema lenses are what's known as parfocal - which makes them stunningly expensive (≅ £40,000 vs £1,000) - but means that changing focus distance does not allow the lens to 'breathe' or change its focal length at all. Neither do they change the absolute amount of light transmission (the aforementioned T-stop). A regular 'stills' camera lens will always change focal length, albeit slightly, if you change focus distance. Most stills lenses will also change aperture (F-stop) as you zoom.
Purely in software, where there is no real light transmission, of course, parfocal qualities are easy to achieve.
I found this B&H blog post - How to Use Cinema Zoom Lenses - which covers this in more detail without getting too technical. They've also used to opportunity to try sell you some 'cheaper' parfocal lenses for a mere 20 grand, but they're a bit slow compared to the 'good stuff', eg this ARRI 40-250mm T2.6
More for my savage amusement than any real relevance - selections of Angeniuex & ARRI lenses at a mere $100,000
*Strictly speaking, on a stills lens, changing any one aspect will change its relationship to all the others, to greater or lesser degree.