Unfortunately you cannot get it by misusing Lens Correction. It is too smart, it doesn't generate chromatic aberration if there's none. But you can distort R,G and B channels differently.
Let's check the case with an example. It has big BW contrasts to get much color.
Duplicate the image layer to have a spare copy.
Insert to the duplicate a few percent radial zoom blur (Filter > Blur > Radial Blur > Zoom)
Open the Channels panel. Select the blurred layer in the Layers panel. Make a selection by applying Select All.
Select one channel, say R in the channels panel and stretch it symmetrically larger by holding Shift+Alt at the same time. Select another channel, say B and stretch it smaller. The fake color aberration is ready:
The blur isn't a must, but it generates some intermediate colors which do not exist without blur. The daylight color spectrum which can be seen for example when one watches things through a thick magnifying glass is much richer than the 3 colors of RGB.
You can make the colors even richer by moving 2 channels apart in other way than radially (=by symmetric stretching). But that generates aberration to the whole image area. You can fool by inserting a radial gradient layer mask and let the original image cover the mid part: