This is only a conceptual exploration of your question
"Editor" is a very loose word.
It can be "the person in charge of editing"
And this can be the person editing a "full publication" or someone manipulating one element of a publication.
A publication could be in an electronic medium, a multimedia element, a printed one.
Or it can be the tool to edit.
Yes there are "different" concepts... are they?
Probably not. The concept is loose but is more or less the same.
In the specific case of your question what changes is the scope or the stage of the "editing".
One is a Raw processor
- The initial function is to process a raw file into a raster image.
A raw file is not necessarily a raster image. Both are a dataset, a matix of information, but one is how a sensor captures it and the other is a set of instructions on what to show to a screen.
You NEED to take some decisions on this transformation because you are translating a "bigger scope" of data into a smaller one.
- A byproduct of this transformation is creative choices about editing. If you have the original data to get contrast information, you can do it in a localized way. Bring up the shadows sacrificing some brighter parts for example.
The other one is a photo editing program
This does not mean the previous is not editing, but it is more about "selective data visualization"
The editors main purpose is actual manipulation of elements. Dodge and burn are about putting shadows where there was not that shadow data. Cutting an element to paste it on another place. Painting things where there were not.
There are some other categories
With tools meant to actually paint like in a canvas. Some even react thru time like watercolor simulators.
Meant to do pixel art, a zoomed in version of assets meant for videogames, fixed color palletes, etc.
Normally node based software using procedural elements meant to generate raster textures.
And sometimes they have some quick tools, like file conversion, etc.
But some terminology is common among them. Things like contrast, cures, saturation, they can be adjusted in all of them.