The easy stripped down answer is no. There are so many software variables, print driver variables, and even font VERSION variables, that it is very difficult to say exactly WHY a font looks different.
The longer answer:
But I would hazard a guess that what you are seeing is ink spread when the book is printed. Most books are offset printed on very cheap uncoated paper that allows the ink to spread into the paper once it's on the paper until it dries.
Your laser printer uses a method of printing that doesn't really soak into the sheet, but kind of sits on top and because of this, it doesn't have any gain on the original image.
Here is a VERY crude illustration of the rough concept.
Imagine the surface of the paper is like a dry sponge. The laser print is essentially like a drop of hot wax on the sponge, it just sits on the surface where it lands and kind of sticks.
The offset printed ink is like a drop of oil, it will spread a little bit following the grain of the sponge making a slightly irregular shape instead of a crisp clean line.
Here is a close up of an offset printed letter, you can see how the edge of the letter sort of follows the grain of the paper.
The really long answer is many books of ink and paper theory, surface dyne, paper finish, ink formula, and it goes on and on...
If you are looking for something that you can do at home that might come close, get a cheap $30 inkjet printer and really cheap typing paper and give that a try.