I'm exporting a book to epub. In Persian, there is a special character that is used to make a small space without creating two separate words.

Adobe InDesign knows this character as "^j", But when I export the book to epub all of these characters were removed.

Is there a way to prevent this?

1 Answer 1


^j is the non-joiner character. It's equivalent in html is &zwjn;.

I can see that this character isn't included when exporting an epub from InDesign.

A workaround could be:

  • In InDesign use Find/Change to change ^j to some letter combination not used elsewhere in the document. For example XX.
  • Export an epub file.
  • Change the extension of the exported file from epub to zip.
  • Unzip the zip file to a folder.
  • Open the xhtml file located in the OEBPS folder in a text editor.
  • Change all occurences of XX (or whatever you chose) to &zwjn;.
  • Save the xhtml file.
  • Create a zip file with the contents of the folder.
  • Change the extension of the zip file from zip to epub.

Now the non-joiner character should be present in your epub.

I don't know if this works as intended with Persian text in an epub reader!

  • I actually ended up using this method, but I'm still looking for a better answer. why on earth they remove a character while exporting :| Dec 7, 2020 at 21:54
  • Do the non-joiner characters work as intended in the epub?
    – Wolff
    Dec 7, 2020 at 22:06
  • yes, actually Persian keyboard has a combination to enter that character (shift+space). I didn't check that with html entities. Dec 7, 2020 at 22:41
  • @AliKazemkhanloo - perhaps you found a bug. Probably best to report it to Adobe.
    – Billy Kerr
    Dec 8, 2020 at 12:45

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